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Stages & Treatment Methods
An important prognostic predictor for any type of cancer is the clinicopathologic stage. A clinicopathologic stage describes the developmental phase of the cancer, and is established according to several criteria: (1) the tumor type and size, (2) the cancer location, and (3) the cancer extent (how far the cancer has spread within the body).
Stage III: In this stage, the cancer has spread beyond the bladder walls affecting surrounding tissues even organs such as the prostate, uterus, or vagina. (T3)
Stage IV: In this stage, the cancer has spread either into the abdomen or pelvis affecting the lymph nodes, or to other organs within the body. (T4)
Bladder cancer is graded by the pathologist when he or she studies the tissue removed during biopsy from the tumor. This grade system refers to the cancer cells appearance when examined under microscope. The most common grading system uses three grades:
A low grade tumor means that the cancerous cells look very much like normal bladder cells, and the tumor is growing slowly and is less likely to spread. A high grade tumor means that the cancerous cell appear abnormal, the tumor is more likely to grow fast and to spread.
Article by Alina Morrow, MS
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