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Bladder Cancer

See Also:
Bladder Cancer: Introduction & Pictures
Bladder Cancer: Types
Bladder Cancer: Causes & Risk Factors
Bladder Cancer: Signs & Symptoms
Bladder Cancer: Stages
Bladder Cancer: Medical Tests & Diagnosis
Bladder Cancer: Treatment Options
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Stages & Treatment Methods

An important prognostic predictor for any type of cancer is the clinicopathologic stage. A clinicopathologic stage describes the developmental phase of the cancer, and is established according to several criteria: (1) the tumor type and size, (2) the cancer location, and (3) the cancer extent (how far the cancer has spread within the body).

There are 5 stages of bladder cancer:

Stage 0: In this stage, the cancer is confined to the lining tissue inside the bladder. This stage is divided in two substages according to the tumor type. (Also described as: T0 )

Stage 0A: Papillary carcinoma
The tumor looks like a tiny mushroom growing from the lining of the bladder. (Ta)

Stage 0B: Carcinoma in situ
The tumor has a flat appearance and is located on the lining tissue inside the bladder. (TIS, or CIS)

Stage I: In this stage, the cancer has spread deeply into the bladder wall affecting the second layer of tissue. (T1)

Stage II: In this stage, the cancer has spread either to the inner half or outer half of the muscle wall of the bladder .(T2)

 

Stage III: In this stage, the cancer has spread beyond the bladder walls affecting surrounding tissues even organs such as the prostate, uterus, or vagina. (T3)

Stage IV: In this stage, the cancer has spread either into the abdomen or pelvis affecting the lymph nodes, or to other organs within the body. (T4)

Bladder cancer is graded by the pathologist when he or she studies the tissue removed during biopsy from the tumor. This grade system refers to the cancer cells appearance when examined under microscope. The most common grading system uses three grades:

  • Grade 1 (low grade)
  • Grade 2 (moderate grade)
  • Grade 3 (high grade)

A low grade tumor means that the cancerous cells look very much like normal bladder cells, and the tumor is growing slowly and is less likely to spread. A high grade tumor means that the cancerous cell appear abnormal, the tumor is more likely to grow fast and to spread.

See Also:
Bladder Cancer: Introduction & Pictures
Bladder Cancer: Types
Bladder Cancer: Causes & Risk Factors
Bladder Cancer: Signs & Symptoms
Bladder Cancer: Stages
Bladder Cancer: Medical Tests & Diagnosis
Bladder Cancer: Treatment Options
Cancer Search Engine!

Article by Alina Morrow, MS
Medical Writer
OmniMedicalSearch.com

Page Covers: What are the stages of bladder cancer?

Sources:

  1. Cancer Research UK, Bladder cancer, January 2007
  2. The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Bladder Cancer, December 2005
  3. Genetics Home Reference, Bladder cancer, January 2007
  4. MayoClinic.com, Bladder cancer, April 2006
  5. Cancerbackup.org, Bladder cancer information center, February 2007
  6. National Cancer Institute, Bladder Cancer (PDQ): Treatment, December 2006
  7. OnkoLink, Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania, Ryan P. Smith, MD, Bladder Cancer: The Basics, August 2003
  8. Medline Plus, Bladder cancer, April 2007
 

 

 

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Page Last Modified:
03/06/2011