There are 5 types of Crohn's Disease based on the gastrointestinal area
affected. The lesions due to Crohn’s disease may appear in any part
of the alimentary canal from the mouth to the anus.
Gastroduodenal Crohn’s Disease:
The type of Crohn’s Disease which affects the stomach and duodenum
(the starting portion of the small intestine) is called gastroduodenal
Crohn’s disease. Often, a correct diagnosis of GCD is not made until
all options to treat an ulcer fail, or GCD is identified farther down
the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms of GCD consist of loss of weight
and appetite, nausea, pain in the upper middle part of the abdomen and
Vomiting indicates the
obstruction of narrowed segments of the bowel (3).
Crohn’s disease affecting the longest portion of small intestine
(jejunum), between duodenum and ileum, is called jejunoileitis.
Mild to intense abdominal pain and cramps after meals, diarrhea,
malnutrition caused by malabsorption of nutrients and Fistulas
are some of the symptoms of this type.
The diseased portion of small intestine may be linked to another
area of the intestine or another organ, such as the bladder and
it is important to note that the risk of developing infections
outside the digestive tract is high due to fistulas. Jejunoileitis
may produce patchy areas of inflammation in the jejunum (3).
Crohn’s disease affecting the lowest or last part of the small intestine
(i.e., ileum) is called ileitis. The symptoms of ileitis Crohn’s
include: cramping or pain in the right lower quadrant and periumbilical
area after meals, malabsorption of vitamin B12 leading to tingling of
fingers or toes, and folate deficiency hindering the development of red
blood cells making the patient anemic.Complications may lead to fistulas
or inflammatory abscess in right lower quadrant of abdomen (3).
Illeocolitis is one of the more common types of Crohn’s disease
and affects the lowest part of small intestine (ileum) and the large intestine
(colon). Generally, the affected portion of the colon is continuous with
the diseased portion of ileum involving the ileocecal valve between the
ileum and the colon. In some cases, discontinuous inflammation in the
colon with ileum may be observed. Symptoms are essentially the same as
in ileitis with the addition of weight loss.
Crohn's Colitis (Granulomatous Colitis):
Crohn’s disease affecting the colon is called Crohn’s Colitis
or Granulomatous Colitis. It differs from ulcerative colitis in two ways:
Ulcerative colitis is always continuous whereas in Crohn’s colitis,
areas of healthy tissue are interspersed between areas of diseased tissue.
Ulcerative colitis always affects the rectum and areas of colon beyond
rectum, whereas Crohn’s colitis appears only in the colon.
Diarrhea, rectal bleeding and disease around the anus (such as abscess,
fistulas and ulcers) are the symptoms of this type. Skin lesions and joint
pains are common in this type (CCFA).
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