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Conditions & Diseases: Cardiovascular System

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Valvular Heart Disease

See Also:
Valvular Heart Disease: Introduction & Overview
Valvular Heart Disease: Types
Valvular Heart Disease: Causes & Risk Factors
Valvular Heart Disease: Signs & Symptoms
Valvular Heart Disease: Medical Tests & Diagnosis
Valvular Heart Disease: Treatment & Prevention Options

Types of Valvular Heart Disease

The various types of Valvular Heart Disease are:

I. Valvular Stenosis: Narrowing, stiffening, thickening, fusion or blockage of one or more valves of the heart is called valvular stenosis. The defective valve interferes with smooth passage of blood through it (1). Various subtypes of valvular stenosis include:

1. Aortic Valve Stenosis: This is abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve orifice due to calcification of the aortic valve (3).

2. Mitral Stenosis: This is abnormal narrowing of the mitral valve orifice usually occurring in people just before attaining old age (65 years). In this type the mitral valve becomes severely calcified later in life (4).

3. Tricuspid Stenosis: It is abnormal narrowing of tricuspid valve orifice due to multivalvular rheumatic heart disease or the carcinoid syndrome (5).

4. Pulmonary Valve Stenosis: In this condition, the flow of blood is obstructed at the pulmonary valve which separates the heart from the pulmonary artery. Generally this condition occurs in developing stages of unborn babies (fetus). Narrowing of the pulmonary valve is called pulmonary valve stenosis. Narrowing below the pulmonary valve is called subvalvar pulmonary stenosis and above the pulmonary valves is called supravalvar pulmonary stenosis (6).

 

II. Valvular Regurgitation: In this condition, blood leaks the reverse direction due to improper closing of the heart’s valves (1). Diagnosis is based on the defective valve that includes the subtypes such as:

1. Acute Aortic Regurgitation: Sudden retrograde movement of blood through a defective aortic valve into the left ventricle during a ventricular diastole leads to acute aortic regurgitation (7).

2. Chronic Aortic Regurgitation: Gradual or long-standing retrograde blood flow through an incompetent aortic valve into the left ventricle during a ventricular diastole leads to acute aortic regurgitation (8).

3. Acute Mitral Regurgitation: Sudden retrograde movement of blood through a defective mitral valve from the left ventricle to the left atrium during systole leads to acute mitral regurgitation (9).

4. Chronic Mitral Regurgitation: Long-standing retrograde blood flow through a defective mitral valve from left ventricle to left atrium during a ventricular with eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy leads to chronic mitral regurgitation (10).

5. Tricuspid Regurgitation: Retrograde movement of blood through an inadequately closed tricuspid valve from the right ventricle to right atrium during a ventricular systole is called tricuspid regurgitation (11).

6. Pulmonary Valve Regurgitation: Retrograde blood flow into the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery due to an incompetent pulmonary valve is called pulmonary valve regurgitation (12).

III. Atresia: This is a condition in which one of the valves fails to develop properly and is completely closed at birth. Diagnosis is based on the affected valve such as:

  1. Aortic atresia: defective aortic valve.

  2. Mitral atresia: defective mitral valve.

  3. Tricuspid atresia: defective tricuspid valve.

  4. Pulmonary atresia: defective atresia (1).

IV. Mitral Valve Prolapse: In this type the two flaps of mitral that are located between the left atrium and the left ventricle are unable to close properly resulting in leakage of blood back into the left atrium (mitral valve regurgitation). This may be due to one or both the flaps being too large or because the muscle “hinges” of the flaps being too long (1).

V. Fibro-calcific degeneration: The aortic valve leaflets become calcified (hardened) and fibrotic (thickened) due to factors such as aging, low body weight and hypertension leading to narrowed valve opening (13).

See Also:
Valvular Heart Disease: Introduction & Overview
Valvular Heart Disease: Types
Valvular Heart Disease: Causes & Risk Factors
Valvular Heart Disease: Signs & Symptoms
Valvular Heart Disease: Medical Tests & Diagnosis
Valvular Heart Disease: Treatment & Prevention Options

Article by Kona Vishnu, MS
Medical Writer,
OmniMedicalSearch.com

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Page Last Modified:
09/10/2010